Photoluminescent Materials Applications And Definition
The luminescence of photoluminescent materials is a process in which energy is absorbed and converted into light radiation by means of energy level transition. Luminous material (long afterglow luminescent material) is one of the earliest luminescent materials for research and application. Luminous materials are luminescent materials that absorb and store the excited light energy. After the excitation stops, the stored energy is slowly released in the form of light and lasts for 2-10 hours.
More about How Does Glow In The Dark Material Work
Glow in the dark materials can store light energy and release it automatically, and the energy storage-release process can be almost infinitely repeated. This characteristic of luminous materials is of great significance to areas that cannot provide illumination. As a result, luminous materials have been widely used with the improvement of their own performance, from the switch panel of household appliances, photoluminescent signs, to the fighter’s luminous dashboard, penetrating into every corner of our lives.
With the development of human civilization and society, the density of urban residential population is increasing. Many public places in the city have a large number of people every day. In these densely populated areas, once a fire, earthquake, power failure or other emergencies occur, how to make people safely evacuated in the shortest possible time becomes a serious problem. The emergency evacuation signs and glow in the dark fire equipment signs made of luminous materials have been widely used in the field of fire safety and played an important role. The luminous signs and indicating systems made of luminous materials played an important role in the evacuation process when the September 11 incident shocked China and foreign countries.
Know more about How Do Photoluminescent Exit Signs Work
1. Application of luminous materials in emergency evacuation signs
In the event of fire and other dangerous emergencies, panic often affects people’s ability to distinguish directions, so that people in the smoke or darkness into chaos, life is greatly threatened. How to evacuate the crowd quickly and effectively is very important for guiding the crowd to evacuate the dangerous area. Night light emergency evacuation signs that store energy and glow in the dark during blackouts can guide people to quickly locate safety exits in panic darkness.
The self-luminous evacuation indicator system made of luminous materials indicates the exit route, luminous adhesive tape for indicating stairs and floor by visual words and graphics, so that people can evacuate and evacuate dangerous areas effectively. Safety test results show that the application of this material can greatly improve the evacuation of the victims.
1.1 Setting of emergency evacuation signs
The reasonable setting of glow in the dark emergency evacuation signs plays an important role in evacuating personnel safely. Usually evacuation signs are set above doors or suspended in the ceiling, and smoke is easy to accumulate in the ceiling, which makes it difficult to see the signs clearly. Besides, when people are in a panic, his instinct is to look down instead of looking up. Practical application at home and abroad shows that setting luminous evacuation signs on the ground of evacuation corridors and main evacuation routes or on the wall near the ground can play a very good role in safe evacuation, and can help people identify the location and direction of evacuation in time in the case of heavy smoke, and quickly follow the luminous evacuation signs. Smooth evacuation and avoid casualties.
The location of the luminous sign system should include the evacuation passage, the evacuation staircase, the safety exit, and so on. The personnel on the scene should escape to the safety zone along the shortest route in the shortest time. The obstacles and safety exits in evacuation routes should also be marked properly. In particular, it is necessary to ensure that the location can receive enough visible light exposure under normal circumstances.
1.2 Performance requirements of luminous materials for emergency evacuation indication system
Emergency evacuation indicator system, also known as low-level lighting system, can play a certain role in lighting, and the operation of the system does not rely on external energy supply, in the state of power failure can still be in a luminous state, luminous materials just meet this requirement.
The luminous material currently used in emergency evacuation signs is SrAl2O4: Eu, Dy. Its luminous wavelength has a main peak of 520 nm. As shown in Figure 1, the luminous wavelength is located in the most sensitive luminous wavelength region of the human eye, so it can be recognized by the human eye at a lower luminance. As shown in Figure 2, the luminous brightness of this luminous material decreases with time, and the rate of luminous attenuation decreases with time.
In theory, 0.3 mcd·m-2 is 100 times the visible value of the human eye. Strictly speaking, this situation is difficult to achieve. The first requirement is that the visible distance is very close, otherwise the sign is very large. The second requirement is that people stay in the dark long enough to adapt to, distinguish the light. In practical application in the field of fire safety, besides taking 0.32 mcd·m-2 as the lowest luminous value, the luminous value within the prescribed time is strictly limited by each specification and standard organization. Moreover, the luminous materials need to be pre-excited to produce afterglow, and the requirements of excitation intensity and time are stipulated.
In recent years, all countries have put forward higher requirements for the environmental protection of materials, and so do luminous materials. Previously, this material used some radioactive elements as doping, now, after the efforts of the majority of scientific researchers, this problem has been greatly improved, such as: SrAl2O4: Eu, Dy does not contain radioactive elements, the initial brightness can reach 10 mcd·m-2, afterglow time can reach more than 10 hours, both to meet environmental requirements, but also to meet the requirements of the environment. The requirement of luminous performance has been widely applied in modern fire protection.
Photoluminescent materials should be used in fire protection, but also with other carriers to make luminous coatings, which requires them to have more performance, such as flame retardancy, non-toxic, weatherability requirements in outdoor use.
2. Application of luminous materials in firefighting facilities and equipment
In case of unexpected blackouts such as fires, people should find fire extinguishers to put out the fire in time besides looking for safety exits in a hurry. But people often cannot find fire extinguishers in the first time. If a marker made of luminous material is affixed to the fire fighting equipment or a backing lining of the marker is placed behind the fire extinguisher, the fire extinguisher can be seen immediately in the dark, and the fire extinguisher can be dealt with in time to achieve the purpose of self-rescue or rescue.
In addition, luminous fabric, luminous fire ropes, luminous lifejackets, luminous fire clothes and luminous safety helmet can also be made of luminous materials, which will play an active and effective role in fire fighting.
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